Arielle S. Keller
Personalized Functional Brain Network Topography and Cognition
Individual differences in cognition during childhood are associated with important social, physical, and mental health outcomes in adolescence and adulthood. Quantifying variation in the total spatial representation of functional brain networks across the developing cortex may provide insight regarding individual differences in cognition. We test this idea by defining personalized functional networks that account for inter-individual heterogeneity in 9-10 year olds from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. Across thousands of individuals, the total cortical representation of personalized networks could predict youth cognition. These results establish that heterogeneity in functional network topography is associated with individual differences in cognition before the critical transition into adolescence.
Sex Differences in Association Network Topography
We identified normative developmental sex differences in the functional topography of personalized association networks including the ventral attention network and default mode network. Furthermore, chromosomal enrichment analyses revealed that sex differences in multivariate patterns of functional topography were spatially coupled to the expression of X- linked genes as well as astrocytic and excitatory neuronal cell-type signatures. These results highlight the role of sex as a biological variable in shaping functional brain development in youth.
Development of Top-Down Cortical Propagations in Youth
Hierarchical processing requires activity propagating between higher and lower-order
cortical areas. Here, we leveraged advances
in neuroimaging and computer vision to describe propagations robustly ascend and descend the cortical hierarchy. Notably, top-down propagations become both more prevalent with cognitive control demands and with development in youth.
We demonstrate that statistical patterns of smartphone-based mobility features represent unique “footprints” that allow individual identification. Critically, mobility footprints exhibit varying levels of person-specific distinctiveness and are associated with individual differences in affective instability, circadian variability, and brain functional connectivity.
Network Development Supports the Emergence of Hierarchy and Cognition
Using multi-scale personalized functional networks in a large sample of youth, we demonstrate that developmental shifts in inter-network coupling systematically adhered to and strengthened a functional hierarchy of cortical organization. Furthermore, we demonstrate that network maturation had clear behavioral relevance: the development of coupling in unimodal and transmodal networks dissociably mediated the emergence of executive function.
Reduction of the E:I Ratio during Adolescence
Using a combination of pharmacological fMRI data developmental fMRI data, we provide evidence for a developmental reduction of the excitation:inhibition ratio during adolescence that is specific to association cortex.
Tinashe Michael Tapera
Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
Curating your imaging data into BIDS (Brain Imaging Data Structure) can be a time consuming, repetitive, and error prone task, particularly on large scale neuroimaging databases like Flywheel. We developed FlywheelTools, a toolkit of software packages, to accelerate the reproducible curation of imaging data on Flywheel.
Developmental coupling of cerebral blood flow and fMRI fluctuations in youth
We demonstrate that non-invasive imaging proxies of neurovascular coupling in children undergo substantial maturation in youth, with evidence of both prominent sex differences and functional relevance to executive function.
Neurocognitive and functional heterogeneity in depressed youth
We identified neurocognitive subtypes of depressed youth using semi-supervised machine learning.
Cedric Huchuan Xia
Human Brain Mapping
Multi‐scale network regression for brain‐phenotype associations
We designed, implemented, and deployed a multi-variate statistical tool to extract novel brain‐behavior relationships that are present on multiple scales.
Quantitative assessment of structural image quality
We assessed quantitative metrics of structural image quality, and described how image quality may impact inference about brain development.
Network control in brain development
In collaborative work with Danielle Bassett, we show that brain networks become more controllable with development in adolescence.
American Journal of Psychiatry
Reward dysconnectivity in psychiatry
We delineate common functional connectivity abnormalities in the brain's reward system across mood and psychotic disorders.
Amygala perfusion and anxiety
We demonstrate that normative developmental sex differences in perfusion of brain regions involved in emotion and social cognition -- such as the amygdala-- mediate established sex differences in mood and anxiety symptoms in youth.
Curation of BIDS (CuBIDS)
CuBIDS is a neuroinformatics workflow and open-source Python-based software package designed to facilitate reproducible curation of neuroimaging data. CuBIDS also helps users summarize, categorize, and visualize the metadata heterogeneity present in their BIDS data, test pipelines on their dataset's entire parameter space, and perform metadata-based quality control.
Arterial spin labeled (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the primary method for non-invasively measuring regional brain perfusion in humans. We introduce ASLPrep, a suite of software pipelines that ensure the reproducible and generalizable processing of ASL MRI data.
Personalized functional network topography and psychopathology in youth
Leveraging a large sample and advances in machine learning, we demonstrate that functional topography significantly predicts individual differences in diverse dimensions of psychopathology.
Neighborhood SES and Executive System Function
In this study we found that lower neighborhood-level SES is associated with reduced activation of the executive system, even when controlling for other measures of developmental adversity.
Average Controllability and Psychosis
We found that average controllability better predicted the symptoms of psychosis spectrum than commonly used graph-theoretic summaries of regional structural connectivity. We found that this improved prediction was driven by regions located in the transmodal cortex.
Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) is the primary method for noninvasively studying the organization of white matter in the human brain. Here we introduce QSIPrep, an integrative software platform for the processing of diffusion images that is compatible with nearly all dMRI sampling schemes. Drawing on a diverse set of software suites to capitalize on their complementary strengths, QSIPrep facilitates the implementation of best practices for processing of diffusion images.
Glutamate and Reward Responsiveness
We used ultra-high field (7T) glutamate imaging to delineate associations between reward network neurochemistry and transdiagnostic reward responsiveness deficits.
Review: Parsing Heterogeneity in Psychopathology
This review provides an overview of methods for defining common and dissociable aspects of psychopathology
Journal of Neuroscience
Longitudinal Development of Brain Iron
Diminished brain iron accumulation in the basal ganglia is associated with poorer cognitive performance during adolescence.
Neurostructural Heterogenity in Mood and Anxiety Disorders
We used a semi-supervised machine learning tool to parse heterogeneity in mood and anxiety disorders in youth
Rula Nassar & Antonia Kaczkurkin
Prematurity and Structural Brain Development
Prematurity is associated with the deficit in executive function and abnormalities in structural covariance networks.
Journal of Neuroscience
Cortical thickness and adolescent impulsivity
In collaboration with Joe Kable, we demonstrate that impulsive choice during adolescence is associated with reduced cortical thickness in regions critical for reward valuation.
Overall psychopathology and cerebral blood flow
Higher levels of overall psychopathology across disorders are associated with differences in cerebral blood flow in key brain regions such as the anterior cingulate cortex.
Human Brain Mapping
Hypergraphs in developing networks
In collaborative work with Danielle Bassett, we uncover novel developmental network features in high-resolution network hypergraphs.
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
Review: Executive function and development
We review recent work investigating the neural basis for executive development during childhood and adolescence.
Structural brain abnormalities in psychosis spectrum youth
We document structural brain abnormalities in youth with psychosis-spectrum symptoms, including medial temporal lobe regions such as the hippocampus.
Common reward deficits in unipolar and bipolar depression
Similar reward system deficits are dimensionally present in both unipolar and bipolar depression.
Neuroimaging of the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort
This provides an overview of the imaging procedures of the PNC, a large-scale NIMH-funded study (PI: Raquel E. Gur).
Characterizing the Spatiotemporal Sequence of Cortical Plasticity
Leveraging intrinsic activity amplitude as a functional marker of plasticity, we find evidence for a cortical gradient of neurodevelopmental plasticity in youth. Declines in the amplitude of intrinsic activity were initiated heterochronously across regions, coupled to the maturation of a plasticity breaking factor, impacted by children’s developmental environments, and temporally staggered along a sensorimotor-association axis from ages 8 to 18.
A Pathway for Amygdala TMS Neuromodulation
Connectivity-guided transcranial magnetic stimulation applied to the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex elicited acute modulations of amygdala fMRI activity, demonstrating therapeutic potential for emotion-related psychopathology.
Arielle S. Keller
Caregiver Monitoring and Cognition
Caregiving plays an important role in supporting cognitive development. We characterized replicable yet specific associations between caregiver monitoring, but not caregiver warmth, and cognition in two large sub-samples of 9-10 year olds. Caregiver monitoring partially mediated the association between household income and cognition, furthering our understanding of how socioeconomic disparities may contribute to disadvantages in cognitive development.
Asymmetric Signaling Across the Hierarchy
We used network control theory to examine the amount of energy required to propagate dynamics across the sensory-fugal axis. Our results revealed an asymmetry in this energy indicating that bottom-up transitions were easier to complete compared to top-down transitions.
We develop and test a theory of how brain network architecture and biology perform lossy compression to support efficient communication among spatially distributed brain regions.
Review: Neurodevelopment of the Association Cortices
We review how human brain maturation progresses along an evolutionarily rooted, sensorimotor-to-association axis of cortical organization. This spatiotemporal developmental program endows association cortices with a protracted period of plasticity, unique neurobiological properties, and heightened maturational variability linked to psychopathology.
Normative Modeling and Psychopathology
We examined how transdiagnostic dimensions of psychopathology tracked deviations from normative neurodevelopment of gray matter volume. We found that modeling cortical volume using normative models improved out-of-sample prediction of participants' psychopathology symptoms.
JAMA Network Open
fMRI of Chronic Pain: A Meta Analysis
A comprehensive meta-analysis revealed that chronic pain does not appear to be associated with consistent alterations in the brain’s response to noxious stimuli.
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Leveraging multi-shell diffusion for studies of brain development in youth and young adulthood
We find key advantages of multi-shell diffusion metrics, including increased neurodevelopmental coupling and decreased spurious relationships with imaging data quality.
Control Energy of Executive Function in Youth
We leveraged advances in network control theory to describe how the structural connectome facilitates transitions to executive activation states
Biological Psychiatry: CNNI
Review: Network neuroscience and neuropsychiatric disorders
We aim to offer an accessible introduction to this emerging field and motivate further work that uses NN to better understand the normative development of brain networks and alterations in that development that accompany or foreshadow psychiatric disease.
Human Brain Mapping
Review: Motion and functional connectivity
This review article provides an overview of the way in-scanner motion impacts functional connectivity data, as well as common approaches for mitigating this artifact.
Benchmarking functional connectivity pipelines
We benchmark 14 of the most commonly used preprocessing pipelines for functional connectivity. This paper was one of the top 3 cited papers in 2017 published in NeuroImage.
Developmental cortical networks and evolutionary expansion
In collaborative work with Christos Davatzikos, we define novel structural covariance networks, and show that their development during adolescence is associated with evolutionary expansion.
American Journal of Psychiatry
Transdiagnostic Executive Dysfunction in Youth
We investigated executive system deficits in association with dimensions of psychiatric symptoms in youth using a working memory paradigm.
Journal of Neuroscience
Functional Maturation of the Executive System
Using fMRI and machine learning tools, we demonstrate that executive system activation is more strongly linked to individual differences in performance ability than chronological age.